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《美国2023年各国人权实践报告》+欧洲议会通过立法·禁止中国强迫劳动产品

送交者: jefferson23[☆★声望品衔8★☆] 于 2024-04-23 19:47 已读 2302 次 1赞  

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中国时间 8:28 2024年4月24日 星期三
美国务院人权报告批评中国政府在新疆进行种族灭绝2024年4月24日 卡拉


美国国务卿安东尼·布林肯2023年4月


22日在国务院简报会上说明《2023年各国人权实践报告》。(美联社照片)


华盛顿 — 


美国国务院4月22日发布2023年《各国人权实践报告》,对包括以哈冲突和俄罗斯侵乌造成的人权问题提出关切,并点名中国针对新疆维吾尔穆斯林和其他少数民族及宗教少数群体进行种族灭绝和反人类暴行。


美国国务卿安东尼·布林肯(Anthony Blinken)在4月22日的新闻发布会上说:“我们再次看到人权和法治在全球更多地方以更多方式受到压力。”布林肯说, 新疆维吾尔人“是种族灭绝和反人类罪的受害者”。他表示,美国将继续向相关政府表达对侵犯人权行为的关注。


《报告》中有关中国的部分指出,“这一年,中国发生了针对以穆斯林为主的维吾尔族以及新疆其他民族和宗教少数群体成员的种族灭绝和反人类罪。” “2017年以来,(中国)政府任意逮捕和拘留了超过 100 万维吾尔族人和其他以穆斯林为主的少数民族群体的成员,并将其关押在法外拘留营、监狱中,还有另外一些总数不明的人在白天接受‘再教育’培训。”



报告也对香港人权问题提出关切,称中国政府在2023年“继续剥夺香港的政治自由和自治权。”


这份报告中列举的中国存在的重大人权问题包括政府任意或非法杀戮;强迫失踪、酷刑;缺乏独立的司法机构;跨国镇压;任意干涉隐私;严重限制言论、媒体、互联网自由;严重干涉和平集会、结社、宗教、迁徙和居住自由;严重的政府腐败;贩运人口、强迫劳动等。


“中国政府没有采取可靠的措施来查明或惩罚可能侵犯人权的官员,”报告总结说。


布林肯将于本周4月24日至26日访问中国。美国国务院民主、人权和劳工局高级官员罗伯特·吉尔克里斯特(Robert Gilchrist)在报告发布记者会上表示,布林肯将以最高等级、最明确的方式向中国提出人权关切。


美国国务院年度《各国人权报告》就七大领域对全球近200个国家和地区的人权问题进行说明。这七大领域是:对人的尊重、公民自由、参与政治进程的自由、政府腐败和缺乏透明度、政府对涉嫌侵犯人权行为的国际和非政府调查的态度、歧视和社会虐待、劳工权利。


卡拉

美国之音记者


中国时间 8:31 2024年4月24日 星期三

欧盟投票通过立法 禁止中国强迫劳动产品进入欧盟迈出关键一步

2024年4月23日 美国之音


资料照:位于法国斯特拉斯堡的欧洲议会总部大厦前飘扬的欧盟成员国旗帜。(2024年2月6日)

欧洲议会周二(4月23日)投票通过了一项新法律,禁止使用强迫劳动生产的产品,这项法律明显针对的是中国,有可能会加剧欧盟与北京的紧张关系。

这项法律虽未直接提及中国,但许多立法者希望它能被用来阻止从中国进口涉及维吾尔族穆斯林少数民族居住地区的强制劳动产品。美国在2021年制定了类似法律,确保那些可能使用新疆强迫劳动生产的产品不能进入美国市场。美国政府认为中国当局针对新疆维吾尔穆斯林犯下了种族灭绝的罪行。

人权组织表示,至少有一百万人、其中大部分是穆斯林少数民族,在中国西北部的新疆地区遭到拘留和大规模虐待,包括强迫妇女绝育和强迫劳动。

美国国务院本周发布的2023年《各国人权实践报告》更指出,“这一年,中国发生了针对以穆斯林为主的维吾尔族以及新疆其他民族和宗教少数群体成员的种族灭绝和反人类罪。”

这项法律获得欧洲议会通过后,还需要欧盟27个成员国的最终批准,才能正式成为法律。

目前欧盟已针对中国采取了一系列贸易工具,包括对中国政府支持的太阳能电池板等绿色科技领域进行反补贴调查。

最新的法律旨在从欧洲市场上彻底排除强迫劳动产品。根据规定,欧盟国家可以移除被发现使用强迫劳动制造的产品以及在欧盟制造的使用了强迫劳动的外国材料制成的产品。

欧洲议会议员玛丽亚·曼努埃尔·莱陶·马克斯(Maria Manuel Leitao Marques)表示:“对于我们的联盟来说,这是完全无法接受的。作为在倡导价值观方面应该是全球捍卫者的联盟,我们不应该继续在我们的商店里进口和销售那些在供应链某个环节中以血泪制成的产品。”她一直推动该案文本在议会获得通过。

根据国际劳工组织的数据,2021年全世界约有2760万人被迫强制劳动,其中超过330万人为儿童,且从2016年到2021年,从事强迫劳动的人数增加了270万人。

新规定还赋予欧盟委员会在对欧盟以外国家的供应链存在怀疑时,可以启动调查的权力。

如果证实使用强迫劳动,官员将在边境扣押这些产品,并下令其从欧洲市场和线上零售商撤出。如果风险存在于某一个成员国,该国的地方当局将调查涉嫌使用强迫劳动制造的产品。对于一些被认为存在风险的商品,进口商将被强制提供制造商的详细信息。

欧盟还将建立一个定期更新的关于强迫劳动风险的数据库,其中将包括国际报告,以帮助委员会和国家机构评估可能的违法行为。

欧洲议会议员莱陶·马克斯也敦促与欧盟的合作伙伴,像是与美国进行紧密合作,“以防止被一个国家封锁的营运商将其强迫劳动的产品销售到其他地方”。

这部法律最早在2022年提出,今年三月,欧盟各国谈判代表针对这项禁止强迫劳动产品的法律达成协议。

不过批评者指出,这项法律的作用并不像美国通过的法律影响那么大。

美国国会在2021年禁止所有从新疆进口的产品,除非该地区的公司能够证明其生产不包括强迫劳动;自2022年6月起,美国开始实施《防止强迫维吾尔人劳动法》(UFLPA),针对中国新疆地区侵犯人权的行为采取了更严格的规定。来自马来西亚和越南的太阳能电池板和微芯片曾遭到美国拒绝入境,因被怀疑有来自中国强迫劳动的部件而受到检查。

据美国海关和边境保护局(CBP)的数据显示,2023年,越南是向美国出口最多UFLPA所涵盖产品的国家,超越了中国。

专家分析,从全球汽车产业到太阳能行业,都发现仍和新疆强迫劳动存在着大量关联。分析人士表示,只要市场的需求面够大,就会有人愿意冒险,而企业也会运用包括“清洗生产履历”等各种方法来逃脱美国严格的法令的限制。

USA·2023 Country Reports on Human Rights PracticesBUREAU OF DEMOCRACY, HUMAN RIGHTS, AND LABOR

 APRIL 22, 2024
Preface·Country·ReportsAfrica (Sub-Saharan)East Asia and PacificEurope and EurasiaNear East (Middle East and North Africa)South and Central AsiaWestern HemisphereNotes on Preparation of the Country Reports and Explanatory MaterialsReporting on Worker RightsAdditional ResourcesFY 2023 Foreign Assistance ActualsUN General Assembly Third Committee VotesUniversal Declaration of Human RightsErrataOverview and Acknowledgements

https://www.state.gov/reports/2023-country-reports-on-human-rights-practices/

The annual Country Reports on Human Rights Practices – the Human Rights Report – cover internationally recognized individual, civil, political, and worker rights, as set forth in the Universal Declaration of Human Rights and other international agreements. The U.S. Department of State submits reports on all countries receiving assistance and all United Nations member states to the U.S. Congress in accordance with the Foreign Assistance Act of 1961 and the Trade Act of 1974.

TRANSLATIONS

Preface

As mandated by Congress, every year since 1977, the State Department’s dedicated public servants in U.S. missions abroad and in Washington scrupulously examine, track, and document the state of human rights in nearly 200 countries and territories around the world.  In compiling these “Country Reports on Human Rights Practices,” commonly known as the Human Rights Report (HRR), we have drawn from a variety of credible, fact-based sources, including reporting from government agencies, nongovernmental organizations, and media.  The HRR helps connect U.S. diplomatic and foreign assistance efforts to the fundamental American value of protecting and promoting respect for human rights for all, while helping to inform the work of civil society, human rights defenders, scholars, multilateral institutions, and others.



The President’s Summit for Democracy underscores the United States’ commitment to advancing respect for human rights, and to the promotion of democracy as the most effective system of government to secure them.  We are pleased the third Summit for Democracy took place this year under the Republic of Korea’s leadership.  Through the Summits for Democracy, the United States and other participating governments, along with partners from civil society, youth, and other stakeholders, seek to cement progress in human rights, foster democratic reforms, expand space for independent media, advance women’s rights, combat corruption, and make technology work for democracies and their people, not misused by malign actors as a tool of repression.



The year covered by this HRR coincided with the 75th anniversary of the United Nations Universal Declaration of Human Rights (UDHR).  In commemoration of the anniversary, the United States made several new commitments, including to renew investments around the world in democracy and human rights, to help protect human rights defenders online, and to advance racial and gender justice in the United States.



In the words of Eleanor Roosevelt, one of the authors of the UDHR, “The destiny of human rights is in the hands of all our citizens in all our communities.”  We hope that this Report proves a useful contribution to that shared global effort, by chronicling both sobering developments in specific countries, as well as evidence of progress.



The Kremlin’s disregard and contempt for human rights are on full display in its war against Ukraine.  Russian forces employ violence against civilians as a deliberate tool of warfare.  The Report highlights documentation of human rights violations and abuses – some amounting to crimes against humanity – throughout the second year of Russia’s brutal, full-scale invasion of Ukraine.  Civilians, including Ukrainian children, have suffered egregious abuses by Russian forces and other Russian officials.  Tens of thousands of Ukrainian children have been transferred within Russia-occupied parts of Ukraine and/or deported to Russia, in many cases taken from their parents or lawful guardians and forced to take Russian names and citizenship.  Russia is cracking down on its own citizens, bringing spurious criminal charges against hundreds of Russians who have spoken against Putin’s war of aggression.



Across Sudan, the Sudanese Armed Forces and Rapid Support Forces have unleashed horrific violence, death, and destruction, including mass killings, unjust detentions, rape, and other forms of gender-based violence.  In December, I determined that members of both forces engaged in war crimes, and that members of the Rapid Support Forces and allied militia engaged in crimes against humanity and ethnic cleansing.  Elsewhere in Africa, Uganda’s government took aim at the human rights of all Ugandans, enacting a broad, draconian anti-LGBTQI+ legislation, including the death penalty for “serial offenders.”



The conflict between Israel and Hamas in Gaza continues to raise deeply troubling concerns for human rights.  Hamas’ brutal terrorist attacks on October 7 killed around 1,200 people, took approximately 230 Israeli and foreign hostages, and included appalling abuses, including gender-based violence and sexual violence.  As Israel exercises its right to self-defense, we have made clear that it must conduct military operations in accordance with international law and take every feasible precaution to protect civilians.  We continue to urgently raise concerns surrounding the deaths of and injuries to tens of thousands of Palestinian civilians in Gaza, including women, children, persons with disabilities, and other vulnerable persons.  We repeatedly have pressed concerns about Palestinian civilians’ access to humanitarian assistance, displacement of the majority of the population of Gaza, and the unprecedented number of journalists killed.  We have repeatedly condemned Hamas’ abhorrent misuse of civilians and civilian infrastructure as human shields and its continued refusal to release all hostages.  We also continue to condemn the record levels of violence in the West Bank, including attacks by violent extremist settlers against Palestinian civilians.



The Report illuminates the ongoing and brutal human rights abuses in Iran, where the regime’s violent repression of its citizens occurs at home and even abroad, including through acts of transnational repression targeting the regime’s perceived dissidents and critics.  Iranian women and members of marginalized communities continue to suffer disproportionately from the regime’s human rights violations and abuses.  Once detained, many prisoners have been harshly punished and even executed for spurious or unjust reasons.



The Report illustrates the Taliban’s systemic mistreatment of and discrimination against Afghanistan’s women and girls.  The Taliban have issued over 50 decrees and edicts that effectively erase women from public life.  Credible sources cited in the Report describe how the military regime in Burma continues to use brutal violence against the general population to consolidate its control, killing more than 4,000 people and detaining more than 25,000.



The Report documents ongoing grave human rights abuses in the People’s Republic of China (PRC).  For example, in Xinjiang, the PRC continues to carry out genocide, crimes against humanity, forced labor, and other human rights violations against predominantly Muslim Uyghurs and members of other ethnic and religious minority groups.



In Cuba, more than 1,000 political prisoners are reportedly unjustly detained and subjected to harsh treatment; their family members are targets of threats as well.  In Nicaragua, the Ortega-Murillo regime closed more than 300 civil society organizations in 2023, bringing the number of shuttered organizations to more than 3,500.  The regime also stripped more than 300 individuals of their citizenship and is holding more than 100 political prisoners in appalling conditions.



Yet, encouraging developments also can be found in this Report.  For example, although members of marginalized and minority communities continued to suffer disproportionately from human rights violations and abuses in 2023, several countries made important progress.  Kenya affirmed that freedom of expression and of assembly extend to LGBTQI+ persons. Japan enacted a bill to promote understanding of LGBTQI+ issues.  LGBTQI+ persons in Estonia and Slovenia now benefit from legislation recognizing marriage equality.



To advance the rights and freedoms of persons with disabilities, the Ministry of Education in Jordan appointed 600 individuals to implement inclusive education programming across the country to ensure children with disabilities could attend school and have the necessary support to enable their learning.



The Report also notes advances in implementing labor reforms in Mexico, where workers are overcoming obstacles to organizing and starting to improve working conditions.  As I noted when I helped launch the Biden-Harris Administration’s Global Labor Directive at APEC in San Francisco, advancing labor rights globally boosts American workers and bolsters middle class aspirations here at home.



This Report could not have been compiled without the selfless work of human rights defenders, independent journalists, and other civil society leaders whose daily work to advance human rights is an inspiration to us all.  I hope that the honest and public assessments of human rights abuses, as well as the reports of progress, reflected in these pages gives strength to these brave individuals across the globe who often put their lives at risk to improve conditions in their own countries, and, ultimately, make the world a freer, safer place for us all.


Antony J. Blinken
Secretary of State




贴主:jefferson23于2024_04_23 19:53:12编辑
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